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Home » Social interaction: Nature, Elements, Types and how to improve it?

Social interaction: Nature, Elements, Types and how to improve it?

Social interaction

Someone recently asked me a question, what are the 5 types of social interaction? Going to answer, I thought; let’s see a little detail about this. I am sharing that with you.

Can we live alone? The Greek philosopher Aristotle said, “Man is by nature social animal.” We need social cooperation to live our lives, and thus we seek means to live. Cooperation takes place through social interaction. Then what is social interaction?

Social interaction is any sort of relationship between two or among individuals. It’s an essential Socilal Skill.  All of us interact with other people, directly or indirectly. Directly we interact face to face and indirectly social media. One giant step was taken by Tim Berners-Lee, who introduced the World Wide Web. Now we can interact through video calling with a little cost. Social interaction has become more comfortable.

Nature of Social Interaction

Using Symbol

People use the symbol to introduce a new member with their society, like Uncle, Aunty Etc. When a new baby is born, we present it with its relatives with these kinds of symbols.

When any guest comes to a community, they introduce him to others through the signs, right? We call a taxi by an emblem, right? Thus social interaction takes place.


The nature of social interaction changes day by day. Like we called earlier, the term mother, now a mom. Behavioral reactions also vary through social interaction. Like, once a baby may lough seeing a cockroach, but when it notices its’ mother sought after then, it also sought.


Socialization also occurs through social interaction. We learn how politely talk to mother or teacher, how to respect others, how far apart we should stand while talking with others.

A feral child was found in 1875 in the northern Indian jungle. A pack of wolves was roaming in the wilderness following the child. After the rescue, it was named after Dina Sanichar. Sanichar never learned to speak.

Not long after Sanichars’ discovery, Kipling wrote “The jungle book.” Dina Sanichar never integrates with society. He only ate meat, despised wearing clothes, sharpened his teeth on bones, made only animal noises.

He interacted with animals, which is why he learned animal-like behavior. If he could live with humans, his interaction methods would be human-like.

Topic of Micro-sociology

It is a topic of Micro-sociology. Micro-sociology studies human behavior with others. They feel the need to analyze human behavior, and thus they opened a new field of sociology. They wanted to know how people act with others.

Social Cultures are Founded upon Social Interaction

By interaction with one another, other People make rules within which they try to live. Through social interaction, we have learned where and what to say. If a guard asks you about your lover, that is unexpected. So there are some roles to interact. A trend cannot be a trend if other people do not follow it. Gradually culture forms through social interaction.

Elements of Social Interaction

Now we will discuss the aspects of social interaction in the following.

Social Status

The honor which is related to someone’s position in society is regarded as social interaction. It may also be called a role or rank in a group, such as father, mother, son, etc. There are so many ways that may contribute to the determination of someone’s social status.

There are two types of social status; Achieved and ascribed. Achieved status is earned by birth. For example, if a baby born in a well-off family is its’ ascribed status and it may contribute to its’ better upbringing. It one day may contribute to his achieved status.

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Role Theory

Human behavior and its’ expectations are studied in role theory. It argues that an individual’s expectation regarding community controls human behavior.

Role Conflict

When an individual falls in conflict among the roles regarding his more than one status, we try to respond to various levels that we belong to. It happens when an individual has to manage his professional and family responsibilities. As a bank manager works his office with heavy stress for a long time, he has to satisfy his family after returning home.

humans need social interaction to survive
Humans need social interaction to survive.


Culture is a combined form of communication, logic, fashion, food, etiquette, art, and rituals that unite a particular society. Usually, learned behaviors are called elements of culture. Older people pass their learned behavior to the new members of the regarding the company. This passing method is called acculturation.

Social class

Usually, society maintains a hierarchy. Some people have more power and money, and others may have less. People are differentiated upon their power and wealth.

Max Weber proposes that there are three components to social stratification. Those are property, prestige, and power. Property means ones’ material possessions .prestige means ones’ reputation regarding his position. Power means the ability to do anything.


A group means a collection of people who have a definite aim. Without an aim, groups cannot be formed. A political group’s purpose is to set in power.

For example, we can say family. Family is developed for a definite aim. All of the family members are aware of their identity and relationship with other members. They identify themselves as a member of the group.

Social Institution

A social institution is a set of established rules which focus on meeting social needs. These rules are made for the need of human beings and take place through social interaction.

There are so many institutions, such as government, economy, education, family health care, and religion. People created these for their necessity. There is a set of rules which must be followed to be a part of it.

Social Networks

A social network exists between actors and individuals or organizations. A social network is composed of various nodes and ties that connect them. Nodes are individuals or organizations. Ties are the different types of relations between these nodes.

Virtual Worlds

A computer-based online community is called the virtual world. Here individuals create avatars, Which are online representations of the creator. These avatars can interact on the internet under the direction of the owner. Both reality and imagined worlds may affect these virtual worlds, such as locomotion, topology, and communication.

What are the 5 types of social interaction?

The most common forms of social interactions are exchange, conflict, competition, cooperation, and accommodation.

1. Social Exchange

Social exchange theory argues that people form relationships and interact because of their benefit. It is a sociological perspective that explains social change and stability to negotiate exchanges between the parties.

It is mainly originated from rational choice theory. People calculate whether there is gain or loss in forming the relationship. People start a relationship and interact with others through their own choice.

Society needs to interact with each other. Business people develop a relationship with the bank manager to get a loan to maintain this relationship to get a deposit.

Only one-sided choice cannot create a relationship if the other side refuses to do. In this theory, people form a connection to exchange; here, both sided gain must be ensured.

2. Conflict

Conflict theory argues that conflict is a normal part of social interaction. It means the struggle for anything within a society. It occurs when the oppositions oppose negotiating.

Conflict theory emphasizes on conflict to gather power rather than norms and values. Resources are scarce, and people naturally fight to gain it. In this way, the theory sees conflict as a regular part of social life rather than abnormal. It is related to the zero-sum game. When x gets resources, y get nothing.

Thus A continues to lead B powerless.

3. Competition

When a contest runs between people or groups for control over resources, it is called competition. Competition is a natural process of society. Here resources can have both literal and symbolic meaning. People can compete for land, food, social capital, etc.

Competition is the opposite of cooperation. It arises when two parties strive for the same goal, which cannot be shared. It has both a positive and a negative side. Positively, competition may cause recreation. On the negative side, competition may cause injury and drain valuable resources and energy.

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Some biologists like Richard Dawkins Prefer to think of evolution in terms of competition between single genes. The term is used in Econometrics as well. There are many companies of a product in the capitalist market, and this competition is positive for society. All sports are positive competition for prestige.

4. Cooperation

Working or acting combined is called cooperation. Social institutions, groups, and entire social systems are formed through collaboration. Can we imagine any social work without cooperation? There are three types of cooperation: Coerced, voluntary, unintentional.

i)Coerced: Forced cooperation between individuals is called coerced cooperation, where a person is forced to join the military and cooperate with others.

ii)Voluntary: Where all parties’ consent is called voluntary cooperation. For example, completing a school project.

iii)Unintentional: Where individuals do not intend to continue the partnership, but finally, they do. The present capitalist economy is the best example of this.

5. Accommodation

Accommodation is a form of social interaction in which we get used to the factors that are likely to lead to conflict either by force of habit, or sheer inertia, or a desire to ‘live and let live.’ It merely means adjusting oneself to the new environment.

People connected with various social relationships are less likely to be depressed
People connected with various social relationships are less likely to be depressed.

What Happen when you do not have any Social Interaction

When we do not have any social interaction, we usually fall in loneliness. According to a meta-analysis co-authored by Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Ph.D., a Psychology and Neuroscience professor at Brigham Young University, a lack of social interaction is equally harmful who takes 15 cigarettes a day (perspectives on Psychological Science, vol.10, no.2,).

According to Cigna’s survey, nearly 13% of Americans rise in loneliness since 2018. (Cigna is a provider of health insurance for NPR employees.)

When we do not have any social interaction gradually, we will be fear of communicating with others. We will feel less interest in social events. A lonely person may feel inferior to others perceived as not lonely.

In a study of 7000 people in California, researchers found that isolation was a more significant risk factor for health over a nine-year study period than smoking, obesity, and lack of exercise. Loneliness leads us to Alcohol use, cardiovascular disease, depression, and suicide.

Does social interaction help depression?

Positive and faithful social interaction may help to get rid of depression. Of course, some social interaction may increase stress, but people stay alone is double chance to be depressed. Mentally depressed people are more likely to improve through social interaction than medicine.

People connected with various social relationships are less likely to be depressed than those who are not connected. In a family, if a person is mentally depressed like a wife, the husband is most likely to be sad for her. Thus depressed people affect non-depressed people. Doctors suggest depressed patients to communicate with others, not to stay too long alone.

Do Humans Need Social Interaction to Survive?

Man cannot live alone. To live, they need to communicate with others. As the great Greek philosopher, Aristotle said, “he who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a God.”

So a man cannot live without interaction. Social involvement is essential. In research of Europeans over the age of 50, Sirven and Debrand (2008) found that individuals who participated in social or community activities were in excellent health.

The study was based on data from the survey of health, aging, and retirement in Europe (11 European countries and 22000 households, 31000 individuals); Who have no social interaction gradually fall in depression and thus suicide or immature death. So we need social interaction to survive.

How can Social Interaction be improved?

Here we will discuss some tricks that can make you social.

1. Have a Social Attitude

You can behave like a social being, though you don’t feel like so. Don’t show anxiety in your face. Firstly decide to talk to new people and enter into the conversation though you are nervous. Just go through it and make it done.

2. Start at Least Little

If spending too much time disturbs you, then at least start a little. If you go to a grocery shop, say a little thank you. You can thank your dairy milk supplier. Thus just start. Try to attend a family get together. If you feel shy to participate in your guests for too long, offer them family movies, and in the meanwhile, you can give yourself time.

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3. Ask Long Answered Questions

If you want to attract audience attention, get familiar with open-ended questions. Let others talk so that you don’t need to speak for a long time. Ask questions that require answers more than a yes or no. Thus you may open the door to the conversation for a long time.

4. Inspire others to talk about themselves

Most people like to talk about themselves. Ask questions about hobby, career, or family. Show you are interested in his speech. In a get-together, you can ask your fellow about his hobbies or activities in which he is interested. Or in a corporate meeting, let others talk about them to create a great environment.

5. Create a Scope for yourself

It would help if you created a Scope for yourself. If you are interested in playing cricket, then play it with your friends or if you like a family, get together, then take steps for it. If you don’t create Scope, then how can you expect to be a social being? You should generate Scope and go through it.

6. Praise Others

Obviously, praising can be a great way to open the door to conversation. Offer a compliment to your neighbor on his new trendy dress or wall paintings. Praise your co-worker for his new skill. Thus you can show that you are friendly.

7. Read Books on Social Skills

There are books about improving social interaction skills. But keep it in your mind that only reading is not the solution; you need to practice them practically.

8. Practice Excellent Manners

If you behave nicely with others, others will be interested in your speech. So try to be polite. Think about yourself. Will you like someone arrogant? Or who is very much selfish? No right? Then you should practice good manners to continue the interaction.

9. Be Grateful

People like those are grateful. So try to be grateful. If your friend helps you by lending a book, then he will expect you to be thankful. If you don’t, then he can be dissatisfied with you. Your friendship may not run for a long time.

10. Keep attention to your Body language

Non-verbal communication is an important thing. It would be best if you tried to appear relaxed, make eye contact an appropriate amount of time, and appear open-minded to the conversation.

11. Join a Social Interaction Skill supporting group

There are some social skills supporting groups in much community. These kinds of groups help people who feel shy, awkward, or anxious in social situations.

12. Stay up to date on running events

Try to keep informed about current events that you may have something to talk about. Try to avoid too controversial issues like politics or religious issues. Try to speak with such events with which they may be of interest.

13. Avoid Negative Thoughts

Be positive about yourself. If you fail in a game after that, if you think that I am a loser and cannot do anything, this is not the right way to be social. Be positive, confident, and go through the events you meet.

Can Social Interaction be deteriorating?

Social interaction has become easier than earlier. Simple a video call can cheer you up. So we are getting closer day by day through social media that we coil not do earlier. Then will it deteriorate in the future?

According to Craig Newmark, founder and customer service representative, the net is about people connecting online, commerce, politics, and personally, and we already see that enhances real-life relationships. Location-based social networking, in particular, will be a big part of our lives.

According to Hal Eriksen, senior engineering manager in, The internet is a tool that reduces communications costs. I will have a better awareness of all the people in my life who are important to me.

According to Michael Burn, co-founder, and principal, i5 web works, today and tomorrow, my social reach is much more comprehensive due to the internet.

According to Jeremy Malcolm, project coordinator, consumer international, I met my wife online, reconnected with my old school friend online, stay in touch with my family overseas online, and have a wide circle of close online friends. For those born in the internet age, this will be the norm.

So the Scope will increase, not deteriorate.


So interaction forms the basement of a society. Without social interaction, nobody can live. We can’t imagine our life without social interaction. So the Scope of interaction will increase in the future.